Electric-car wells-to-wheels emission equivalencies in MPG, Sep 2015 (Image: Union of Concerned Scientists)

How much do electric cars really pollute, even without tailpipes?

Personal automobiles have given hundreds of millions of people the great luxury of a convenient and comfortable mode of transportation. But there’s no escaping that manufacturing these vehicles, driving them for 10 years or more, and then disposing of them creates pollution that has a wide range of negative impacts. As advocates and some governments